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Vol. 1 Issue 2

Urinary tract endometriosis

Urinary tract endometriosis

Journal of Endometriosis 2009; 1(2): 72 - 78

Article Type: REVIEW

Authors

Peter Rehder, Bernhard Glodny, Renate Pichler, Andrea Kerschbaumer, Michael Mitterberger

Abstract

Endometriosis is a multifactorial polygenic genetic disorder that affects 10-20% of women. The urinary tract is affected in only 1-5% of cases and here most commonly the urinary bladder. Diagnosis of urinary tract endometriosis is made late due to its commonly asymptomatic course. The management of urinary tract endometriosis depends on the severity of the symptoms and signs, the extent of the disease, its location and the presence of renal damage because of ureteral obstruction. A conservative medical treatment is recommended for small areas of endometriosis in the bladder. For urinary tract endometriosis covering a large area, or where infiltration causes architectural damage, surgery is recommended. Partial cystectomy should be considered because of the transmural nature of bladder endometriosis. In cases of ureteral endometriosis, the surgical technique is determined by the location and extent of the lesion. For the distal ureter an ureterocystoneostomy using the Psoas hitch or Boari flap is recommended. For short, proximal ureteral involvement an end-to-end anastomosis or endoscopic incision may be used, and for extended areas, ileum interposition or kidney mobilization using nephropexy. A multidisciplinary approach is strongly recommended. Endometriosis with urological involvement more often needs surgical treatment, especially when ureteral obstruction leads to progressive kidney damage.

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